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Common or usual name: peppers, hot peppers, sweet peppers,                                    Pimentos Scientific or Latin name: Capsicum annuum var. annuum Family: Solanaceae. Origin: South America. Pepper is a herbaceous, perennial habit under natural conditions, but grown as an annual in most cases, due to their susceptibility to freezing and chilling injury. These are annual shrub habit and reach 75 cm high. The insert presents dichotomous branching and the branches are arranged medium sized leaves, entire, oval-oblong, glabrous and bright green. Flowers are perfect and are solitary in the axils of the branches, are small (1 cm), with toothed calyx, five white petals and yellow anthers, blue or purple. The fruit of the species is a berry is highly variable, with weights ranging from a few grams up to half a kilo, the shape varies from round, heart-shaped, pointed, cylindrical, square, with external color from white to black, predominantly yellow, green and red. Consumed green, prized for their flavor. Besides eaten fresh, cooked, or as a condiment or "spice" in typical food from different countries, there is a wide range of industrial products used in food: frozen, dried, pickled, canned pasta and sauces. - For fresh consumption (usually fried or roasted, both the Greens and reds). - For dried peppers (usually red and very pungent peppers or chilis, joining various dishes whole or ground paprika or cayenne =). - To pickles (acetic acid). The terms paprika and paprika should be reserved for the dry and ground of the species. Most pepper varieties grown in Spain: Sweet peppers - Dulce de Spain. - Morr¨®n. - Large square. - Keystone. - Wonder of California (U.S.). - Yolo Wonder (U.S.). - Lamuyo (French hybrid, thick flesh, late widespread in Spain). - Crystal (Rioja, for frying). - Green Italian (for frying). - Sweet Italian (not too thick meat, frying). - Esterel (French hybrid, half size). - Marconi (red at maturity, for frying). - Padr¨®n (small for fried green can be very spicy, depending on the collection). Canning peppers - Piquillo (sweet, red, sometimes a little spicy). - Morr¨®n (canning late red sweet). - Ele (American, sweet, very thick flesh). - Select (American sweet). Pepper for paprika - Nora (in some areas is directly used to flavor stews). - Chillies (yellow cayenne, cayenne red, long red; using dried). Pickling peppers - Amarillo Hungary Properties pepper health: Peppers, betacarotenes source also constitute a reservoir splendid vitamin C, necessary for tissue preservation, wound healing and prevention of viral infections. To give an idea of ​​its potential at this point, it should be noted that the green pepper contains twice as much vitamin C than oranges, and red, triple. Regarding carrot, besides the above, must be added its usefulness in combating diarrhea in infants when prepared mashed, and curiosity which alone is most healthy vegetable cooked (in the process of breaking the cellular membranes outer wall and release nutrients) that raw. Chemical composition of peppers: Water 94% 3 carbohydrates, 7% (fiber 1, 2%) Lipid 0, 2% Protein 0, 9% Sodium 0, 5 mg/100 g 12 mg/100 g Calcium Iron 0, 5 mg/100 g Potassium 186 mg/100 g Phosphorus 26 mg/100 g Ascorbic acid (Vit. C) 131 mg/100 g Retinol (Vitamin A) 94 mg/100 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0, 05 mg/100 g Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 0, 04 mg/100 g Folic Acid (Vitamin B3) 11 g microgramos/100 Pepper crop Temperatures: They are tropical and subtropical plants that require minimum temperature of 21 o C and humidity of 70-75%. Optimum temperature 20 ¡ă -25 ¡ă C. Temperatures above 30 ¡ă C can reduce fruit production and cause flower drop. In temperate climates can be grown outside in a sunny, sheltered site cover. Soil: Fertile, well drained and media nitrogen levels. Acidic pH trend. Sowing and planting Sow the seeds in spring in trays in the greenhouse. Plant out 10-12 weeks after planting spacing to 45-60 cm on each side in clumps. In temperate climates, changing pot seedlings and planting outside until frost has passed. If necessary to protect plants abroad with plastic. In greenhouses, planted in early spring, place the seedlings to 8-10 cm in 21 cm pots or bags or greenhouse beds well prepared. In rows 50 cm apart and 50 cm between plants. Irrigation: Water generously and apply organic mulch. Subscriber or fertilization: Balanced fertilizer or liquid feed every two weeks during development. Pruning: Remove the end of development to stimulate established plants and shrub characteristics entutore cultivars over 60 cm tall. Pests: - Green caterpillar. - Spiders red and white. - Aphids. - Nematodes. Diseases: - Sadness or dried peppers. - Fusarium. - Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas). - Mosaic. Collection: Duration of the cultivation of from 125 to 220 days. The fruits are harvested at different stages of maturity depending on cultivar and its use, so that the composition can be quite variable. Harvesting occurs at 12-14 weeks after transplanting and before the first frost grows arrive if outside. Harvesting some green peppers, others can be left until they turn red or yellow.
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